The study and treatment of cardiovascular and disorders the blood vessels are known as cardiology. An individual with heart disease or cardiovascular disease can be referred to a cardiologist.

Cardiology is a branch of internal medicine. There is a difference between a cardiologist and cardiac surgeon. What the cardiac surgeon does is to open the chest and carry out some surgeries on the heart.

The area of specialization of a cardiologist is in diagnosing and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The cardiologist will perform tests, and some may perform procedures such as heart catheterization, angioplasty, or insertion of a pacemaker.

Heart disease has to do with the heart while cardiovascular disease affects the heart, the blood vessels, or both. A cardiology consultation can be advised by your family doctor (that is used to general medicine) but can go alone with other medical categories (such as neurology, gastro enterology, orthopedics or even new treatments such as stem cells).
1. Angina Pectoris Treatment

Angina pectoris is a medical term that is used to describe chest pain or discomfort which occur as a result of coronary heart disease. This happens when the heart muscle does not get as much blood as it needs. This usually occurs as a result of blocked or narrowed heart’s artery which is also known as ischemia.

Angina usually leads to uncomfortable pressure, fullness, squeezing or pain in the middle of the chest. You can also feel discomfort in the neck, jaw, shoulders, back or arm. (Many types of chest discomfort - such as heartburn, lung infection, or inflammation - are not associated with angina pectoris). Angina in women is not the same as that in men.

Treatment of angina pectoris

Individuals with angina pectoris or sometimes called stable angina have incidents of chest pain. This discomfort is usually predictable and manageable. You can experience it while you are running or in the event that you are battling with stress.
Under normal condition, this type of chest discomfort can be alleviated with rest, nitroglycerin or both. Nitroglycerin relaxes coronary arteries and other blood vessels, which reduces the amount of blood that returns to the heart and relieves the workload on the heart. By relaxing the coronary arteries it increases the blood flow to the heart.

In the event that you feel some discomfort in your chest, do not hesitate and consult your doctor for complete evaluation and possible tests. If you have stable angina pectoris and you begin to experience chest pain more often, you should consult your doctor immediately because you may have early signs of unstable angina.


Angiography is a radiographic technique where dye is injected into the cavities of your heart or in the arteries leading to your heart (coronary arteries). Physicians can measure blood flow and blood pressure in the heart chambers and see if coronary arteries are blocked.

How does an angiography works?

Physician conducts a cardiac catheterization procedure in which a long thin tube (known as a catheter) is placed in the artery found in the leg and is pulled into the heart. When the catheter is in place in the heart, a dye is injected through the catheter and into the heart. This dye makes it possible for doctors to see how cardiac cavities and coronary arteries are working. The movement of the dye in the heart and coronary arteries will be recorded as an angiogram and shown on the television screen.

Advantages associated with an angiogram

•    Used for diagnosis to display very detailed arterial images within your brain, heart, and kidney
•    Can be used to display blockages in the arteries

Preparation for angiogram

You will usually be admitted to the hospital as a patient for this procedure.
you are to come to the hospital with your referral letter or request form and all X-rays taken in the past two years.

Leave X-rays to radiology staff as a doctor may need them to be examined. The radiology staff will notify you when all these are ready to be picked up.

Put on loose and comfortable clothes
Leave all jewelry and valuables at home

You may be asked not to eat four hours before the angiogram
Four hours before angiogram you will be able to drink pure liquids like black tea, coffee, light soup or water. It's important that your kidneys have fluids

What happens during the angiogram?

You will be asked to lie on your back on an X-rayed bed. The staff will place sterile drapes on you.
The staff will put a small tube or catheter into the artery in your hand or groin and the dye will be injected into it.

Possible side effects

•    You may feel a slight freshness and redness for a few seconds.
•    A part of your body can be hot. If it does, report to the staff

When you are ready, the staff taking care of the X-ray will go to the screen or into the next room to start the X-ray machine. They will ask you to stay calm and may ask you to take a deep breath and hold your breath during the X-rays. 
When the X-ray image is completed, you will be asked to wait until the X-ray team checks the images because you need another X-ray image.

The test, including preparation, usually lasts between 30 minutes and one hour.

When will I get results?

The amount of time required to obtain the results varies depending on where you are doing the scan. The radiologist will review the pictures and write a report. The pictures may be on films or on a CD.

Ask if you need to wait to take photos and get in touch with you or send them to your doctor. The report will be discussed with you by your doctor. You'll have to make a meeting to do this.

3. Atrioventricular fistula

An arteriovenous (AV) fistula is an abnormal connection between the artery and the vein. Normally, the blood flows from your arteries to your capillaries on your veins. The nutrients and oxygen in the blood also travel from the capillaries to the tissue of the body.
In the case of arteriovenous fistula, blood flows directly from the artery into the vein by circumventing certain capillaries. When this occurs, the tissues below the bypassed capillaries receive a reduced amount of blood.

Arteriovenous fistulas are common in the legs, but it has been shown to develop anywhere in the body. Arteriovenous fistulas are often surgically created for dialysis use in people with severe kidney disease.
A large untreated arteriovenous fistula can result in serious complications. In the event that you have one for dialysis, your arteriovenous fistula will be monitored by your doctor.


Small arteriovenous fistulas in the legs, arms, lungs, kidneys or brain often have no signs or symptoms, and usually, do not require treatment other than medical supervision. Large arteriovenous fistulas can cause signs and symptoms.
The signs and Symptoms of an arteriovenous fistula may include:

•    Purplish, bulging veins that you can see through your skin, similar to varicose veins
•    Swelling in the arms or legs
•    Decreased blood pressure
•    Fatigue
•    Heart failure

An arteriovenous fistula in the lung (pulmonary arteriovenous fistula) is a serious condition that can cause:

•    A bluish tinge to the skin
•    Clubbing of fingers
•    Coughing up blood

Bleeding in the digestive tract can occur as a result of arteriovenous fistula in your gastrointestinal tract. 

When to visit a doctor
In the event that you have any of the signs and symptoms listed above and think you have an arteriovenous fistula, arrange a meeting with your doctor. Early detection of arteriovenous fistula can help to cure your condition and reduce the risk of developing complications, such as blood clots or, in severe cases, heart failure.

4. Cardiac CT

A CT scan can make use of X-rays to visualize specific areas of your body. These scans use a safe amount of radiation to produce detailed images, which can help your doctor discover potential problems. A heart, or cardiac, CT scan is used to visualize your heart and blood vessels.
During testing, a specialized dye is injected into the bloodstream. The dye is then examined under a special camera in the hospital or test center.
A heart CT scan can also be referred to as a coronary CT angiogram if the intention is to visualize arteries that bring blood to the heart. The test can be called coronary calcium scan if you need to determine if there is calcium accumulation in your heart.
Your doctor may prescribe a heart CT scan to look for certain conditions, including:
•    Congenital heart disease or birth defects in the heart
•    The accumulation of a hard substance called a lipid plate that can block coronary arteries
•    defects or injury to the four primary heart valves
•    blood clots in the heart chambers
•    tumors in or on the heart

A heart CT scan is a common test for people with heart problems. This allows your doctor to investigate the structure of the heart and adjacent blood vessels without making ant cut.

The study and treatment of cardiovascular and disorders the blood vessels are known as cardiology. An individual with heart disease or cardiovascular disease can be referred to a cardiologist.
Cardiology is a branch of internal medicine. There is a difference between a cardiologist and cardiac surgeon. What the cardiac surgeon does is to open the chest and carry out some surgeries on the heart.

The main work of a cardiologist relies in diagnosing and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. If you have any problem related to your heart, cardiologists are in the best position to fashion solutions to your problem. In the United States, it is important that you complete 4 years of medical school, 3 years of internal medicine training and at least 3 years of specialization in cardiology before you can become a certified cardiologist. Contact a cardiologist if you need help on any of these conditions: Cardiac CT, Atrioventricular fistula, Angiography, and Angina Pectoris Treatment among others.