Orthopedics is known as a medical specialty aimed at diagnosing, correcting, preventing and treating of patients that have skeletal deformities including the disorders of the bones, joints, muscles, ligaments, tendons, nerves and skin. All of these are the elements form a musculoskeletal system.

The musculoskeletal system of the body is a complex system of bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, muscles, and nerves. They play a vital role in locomotion, work, and be active. Orthopedics was once dedicated to the care of children with spine and limb deformities, but presently, they care for patients of all age groups, from newborns with clubfeet, young athletes who require arthroscopic surgery for the elderly with arthritis. Physicians specializing in this area are referred to as orthopedic surgeons or orthopedists.

1.Hip Replacement

Hip replacement is a surgical procedure for individuals with severe hip injuries. Osteoarthritis is the most common cause of damage. Osteoarthritis leads to pain, swelling, and limited movement of the joints. This has been found to disrupt the daily activities of an individual. In the event that other treatments such as physical therapy, pain medications and exercise do not help, hip replacement surgery may be an option for you.

During hip replacement surgery, damaged cartilages and bones from the hip joint are removed by the surgeon and replace them with new, artificial parts.

A hip replacement can:

  • Alleviate pain
  • enable easy movement of the hip joint
  • Improve walking and other movements

One of the most common problems that can occur after surgery is the hip dislocation. Since the artificial hip is smaller than the original joint, this can displace the ball thereby making it move out of its socket. With a hip replacement, there are some specific activities that you need to stay away from examples include jogging and high-impact sports.

Why should I need a hip replacement surgery?

Hip surgery is used to treat pains and disability in the hip. As mentioned earlier the most common cause of hip replacement is osteoarthritis.

Osteoarthritis can result in loss of joint cartilage in the hip. Damages to the cartilage and bone reduce movement and can lead to pain. Individuals with serious pain that arise from the degenerative joint disease can find it very difficult to engage in normal activities that include hip flexibility. Examples of these activities are walking and sitting.

There are some other forms of arthritis, such as rheumatoid arthritis and arthritis that occur as a result of a hip injury can also cause damage to the hip joint.

Hip replacement can also be used to treat some hip fractures. Injuries which are caused as a result of falls are known as fractures. The pains that emanate from fractures are severe. Walking or even moving your leg is painful.

2.Knee replacement

This is also referred to as knee arthroplasty. It is used to alleviate pain and restore function in seriously diseased knee joints. Knee replacement procedure involves cutting away of damaged bone cutting and cartilage from the thighbone, shinbone, and kneecap and replaces them with the artificial joint (prosthesis) which are made of metal alloys, high-quality plastic, and polymers.

In order to decide whether you are an ideal candidate for knee replacement, the range of movement of your knee will be examined by an orthopedic surgeon, stability and strength. X-rays are used to determine the degree of damage. Your doctor may select from various knee replacement prostheses and surgical techniques depending on your age, weight, activity level, knee size, shape, and general health.

The major purpose of having a knee replacement surgery is to relieve severe pain which is caused by osteoarthritis. Individuals who are in need of a knee replacement surgery usually have difficulty walking, climbing the stairs, and entering and exiting their chairs. Some also experience pains of their knee when they are resting.

For a lot of individuals, knee replacement offers pain relief, improved mobility and a better quality of life. And most knee replacement can be expected to last longer than 15 years.

Three to six weeks after the operation, you can usually continue most of your daily activities, such as shopping and easy housework. Driving is possible for about three weeks if you can bend your knees far enough to sit in the car, in the event that you have the control of your muscle to operate the brakes and accelerator, and if you are not yet taking narcotic drug remedies.

After recovery, you can take part in various low-impact activities such as walking, swimming, golfing or cycling. However, you should avoid high impact activities - such as jogging, skiing, tennis, and sports that include contact or jumping. Contact your doctor so that you can talk about your limitations.

3. Hand Surgery

The hands serve many purposes including eating, dressing, writing, earning a living, art creation and many other activities. In order to get all these things done, the hand needs sensations and movements, such as joint movement, tendon gliding, and muscle contraction. When a problem arises in the hand, care should be taken on the different types of tissue that make it possible for the hand to work.

What hand surgery can treat?

1. Carpal tunnel syndrome: this a condition that occurs as a result of pressure to the median nerve located in the wrist or carpal tunnel. You may feel pain, tingling sensation, numbness of the fingers, weakness, or aching. Carpal tunnel syndrome is associated with multiple diseases including recurrent motion or excessive use, water retention during pregnancy, nerve damage in the carpal tunnel or rheumatoid arthritis.

2. Rheumatoid arthritis: this is a disabling disease that can lead to severe inflammation in any joint in the body. In your hand, it can deform your fingers, cause pain and prevent movement.

3. Dupuytren’s contracture: this is another disabling disease like RA in which thick, scar-like tissue bands form in the palm and can extend to the fingers. This can cause limited movement, bending the fingers to an abnormal position.

Patients with painful conditions such as carpal tunnel syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, and Dupuytren's contractures may be suitable candidates for a hand surgery.

Hand surgery can be done on people of all ages and is a good choice for you if:

  • You do not have other health problems or other illnesses that might interfere with the treatment
  • You are a non-smoker
  • You have positive outcomes and realistic goals for hand surgery
  • You agree to follow the treatment prescribed by your plastic surgeon

Under certain conditions, hand surgery is needed to treat wounds and injuries. Plastic surgeons often intervene in the treatment of emergency patients with severe traumas on their hands.

Outcomes of hand surgery

The end result of your hand surgery will manifest as time goes on. Though progress in hand surgery can accomplish almost miracles in reconstruction and replantation, the results cannot be fully predicted. For some traumatic injuries, it may not be possible to get a completely normal function.

In the event that you have had a surgery to correct carpal tunnel syndrome, changing your work habit as recommended is important for long-term improvement. The final result may not have been accomplished for several months. If your procedure involves microsurgery, a year is considered appropriate to fully reach restored function.

4. Bunion Surgery

The purpose of carrying out bunion surgery is to reduce the pain and make corrections to the deformity which occurs as a result of a bunion. The bunion (hallux valgus) is an enlargement of the bone or tissue around the joint beneath the big toe or at the base of the little toe. This one is referred to as a "bunionette" or "tailor's bunion". Bunions often occur as a result of long-term stress exerted on the joint. Majority of the bunions which appear in women is because women may be more likely to wear tight, pointed, and confining shoes. Bunions can also occur as a result of heredity. It can also be a result of arthritis. This often affects the articulation of the big toe.

Before surgery is put into consideration, your doctor may recommend that you first wear comfortable, well-fitting shoes (especially shoes that match the leg shape and do not create pressure zones). He or she may also suggest the use of splints and orthotics (special shoe fit suitable for the leg) to reposition the big toe and/or provide padding. Medications can be helpful to reduce pain and swelling when the bunions occur as a result of arthritis.

Surgery can be recommended only if these treatments do not help. This often solves the problem. The purpose of the surgery is to ease pain and correct deformations as much as possible. The operation is not cosmetic and does not intend to improve the look of the foot.

5. Shoulder Surgery

Shoulder SurgeryFor some common shoulder problems, surgery can be an ideal treatment, especially those who do not respond to conservative treatment. They can range from minimally invasive arthroscopic procedures (in which a scope and surgical instruments are inserted through keyhole incisions in your shoulder) to more traditional open operations using scalpels and sutures. Each approach has its advantages, disadvantages, constraints and appropriate applications.

In most cases, many shoulder injuries should not require surgery. However, the major tears in the rotator cuff, the tendon, and ligaments which are attached to and enfold the head of the arm bone or the humerus usually require surgery. Although the procedure can be carried out with minimal invasion by making use of arthroscopy, there is usually a long recovery period of up to six months. The reason is that it takes some time for the tendons to heal and adhere properly to the bone. Of course, the recovery period will vary from one patient to another and will depend on how severe the tear is.

Orthopedics as a branch of medicine involves the diagnosis, correction, prevention, and treatment of patients with skeletal deformities. Patients with disorders of the bones, joints, muscles, ligaments, tendons, nerves and skin need the attention of an orthopedics.  Shoulder Surgery, Bunion Surgery, Hand Surgery, Knee Replacement, Hip Replacement are some of the possible treatment options under orthopedics and in some cases stem cells therapies can help to treat joint disorders.

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