What is a Dental Implant?
Dental implants are metal frames or posts that are surgically introduced beneath the gums, directly into the jawbone. They provide a stable support for replacement teeth. They allow for crowns, dentures and bridges to be securely fixed. This type of work is done by qualified in dental implantology as some say, a branch of dentistry.
There are 2 main types of dental implants currently being used
Endosteal implants — this type of dental implants are surgically fixed directly into the jawbone. As soon as the surrounding gum tissue is healed, a second surgery is needed to connect a post to the original implant. The last step consists of attaching an artificial tooth, bridge or denture to the post.
Subperiosteal implants — this type of dental implants consist of a metal frame that is attached on to the jawbone just below the gum tissue. In time, the gums heal and the frame becomes fixed to the jawbone. Posts are then attached to the frame and protrude through the gums. Last step is once more placing artificial teeth to the posts.
What Types of Dental Implants are available on Market?
Types by Material
Titanium Implants – the preferred material for dental implants
- By Stage
- Single-stage Procedures – During the procedure, after the implant is introduced, an abutment is placed also placed during the procedure. The abutment is essentially the post that is attached to the implant and around which the crown/denture/bridge will be placed. The implant will then be allowed to fuse with the bone for 3-6 months after which the fake tooth will be placed on top. This is generally used for the teeth at the back areas of the mouth and when the bone quality is good.
- Two-stage Procedures – With this procedure the implants are introduced and then the tissue is left alone to heal and cover the implants. A second surgery is then performed to attach the abutment. This procedure is recommended when the bone quality is less than ideal.
- By Connector
- External Hexagonal
- Internal Hexagonal
- Internal Octagonal
- By Stage
Types by Procedure
- Root-form Dental Implants – these screw type implants are shaped like a tooth root and are introduced directly into the jawbone
- Plate-form Dental Implants – These implants are flat and long. They are set under the gums but directly above the jawbone. They are used when the jawbone is too shirt or narrow for a root form implant
What are Dental Prosthetics?
A dental prosthesis is prosthesis specifically designed for the oral cavity, that are used to reconstruct various defects such as missing hard and soft structures of the palate and jaw, missing teeth or parts of teeth.
These prostheses can be removable or fixed permanently. Permanently fixed prosthesis are attached to dental implants or teeth through screws or adhesive. Removable prosthesis use either suction or friction to passively hold in place.
A crown is a type of dental prosthetics that completely encircles a dental implant or tooth. When placed on a tooth, they are bonded to the remaining tooth fragment using a dental cement. Crowns are often used to improve the appearance and strength of teeth that have been plagued by cavities.
Types of crowns by material
Porcelain-Fused-To-Metal – these crowns are constructed from a metal shell on which a veneer of porcelain is fused in a high heat oven. The metal provides strong tensile strength and compression, while the porcelain gives the crown a white tooth-like appearance.often made with a partial veneer that only covers the parts of the crown that are visible. The remaining parts of the crown are usually bare metal.
Metal – They’re usually composed of many different types of elements, including platinum, gold, palladium, silver, tin, and copper
A bridge is a fixed dental prosthesis used to replace one or several missing teeth by permanently fixing an artificial tooth to the neighbouring teeth or dental implants.
In order to place the bridge the teeth on both sides of the missing tooth are reduced to accommodate the material used to restore the shape and size of the original teeth. The dimensions of the bridge are decided by the size of the missing tooth’s root.
Types of Bridges
- 3-unit Bridges (group of 3 teeth)
- 4-unit Bridges (group of 4 teeth)
- Maryland Bridges - they utilize "wings" on the sides to attach to the connective teeth, therefore little to no damage is done to these teeth. They usually used in the front of the mouth and only if the connective teeth are intact and healthy. They are considered to be more weak compared to conventional bridges, and are always completely opaque, making them look more artificial.
- Cantilever Bridges
Types of Bridges by materials
Dentures are prosthetics manufactured to replace missing teeth. They are supported by the surrounding hard and soft tissues of the oral cavity. Conventional dentures are removable. There are 2 main types of denture: complete and partial.
An abutment is essentially a connective element. When used in the context of
- a fixed bridge an abutment refers to the teeth that support the bridge
- an implant an abutment is the post used to attach a crown or a bridge
There are 2 main types of abutments: temporary and definitive.
A veneer is a material placed over a tooth in order to protect the surface of the tooth and improve the aesthetics. Veneers are made from 2 main types of materials: dental and composite porcelain.
Composite veneers can be placed directly on the teeth and held in place using a resin cement. Porcelain veneers can only be fabricated indirectly by a dental technician in a lab and then placed on the teeth.
Inlays and Onlays
An inlay is a filling that consists of a solid substance (gold, composite resin, or porcelain) that is placed in a cavity in the tooth and cemented into place. Placing an inlay requires making the filling outside of the mouth with the use of a dental impression.
At last, an onlay is similar to an inlay, the difference being that an only incorporates a replacement for a tooth cusp by covering the region where the cusp is missing.
Last update 11th of September 2018