General Medicine/Surgery

General Surgery is a surgical specialty which focuses on the content of the abdomen including esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, appendix and bile ducts, and often thyroid gland. They are also for the treatment of diseases that affects the skin (dermatology category), breast, soft tissue trauma (can refer to plastic surgery body category), peripheral vascular surgery and hernias (orthopedic category) and endoscopic procedures, such as gastroscopy (gastroenterology category) and colonoscopy.

 1. Adenoidectomy

This is the removal of the adenoids. It can also be referred to as adenoidectomy. Adenoids are glands on the roof of the mouth, behind the soft palate, where the nose connects with the throat. The role of the adenoids is to produce antibodies, or white blood cells, that help fight infections. Generally, adenoids reduce in size during adolescence and may disappear at an adult age.

Removal of the adenoids and tonsillectomies can be performed together by doctors. Chronic infections of the throat and the respiratory tract often cause inflammation and infection in both glands.

Why the Procedure is performed?

Adenoidectomy may be recommended by health care provider if:

• The airways of your child are blocked by enlarged adenoids. Symptoms in your child may include intense snoring, nasal breathing problems, and some incidents of not breathing during sleep.

• Your child has chronic ear infections that often occur, despite the use of antibiotics, which causes loss of hearing or forcing a child to miss a lot of school days.

Adenoidectomy can also be recommended if your child has regular tonsillitis. Adenoids usually decrease while children are old. Adults rarely have to remove them.

Before the procedure

Your service provider will explain how to get your child prepared for this procedure. One week before surgery, do not give any blood-thinning medication to the child unless your doctor tells you. These medicines include aspirin and ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin). The night before surgery, your child may not eat or drink anything after midnight. This includes water. You will be told what medications your child should take on the day of surgery. Ask your child to take the medicine with a sip of water.

After the procedure

Your child will return home the same day of the surgery. The full recovery takes about 1 to 2 weeks. Follow the instructions for taking care of your child at home.

How do I take care of my child after surgery?

It is important to encourage a child to drink plenty of fluids. Maintaining a moist throat reduces discomfort and prevents dehydration (a dangerous condition in which the body does not have enough water). After adenoidectomy, there are no special dietary restrictions. In other words, your child may eat what he would otherwise give.

In most cases, your child can continue regular activities within 1 to 2 days of surgery. It is not necessary to limit normal activity after the baby has returned to normal. Exercises such as swimming and running are known to be vigorous should be avoided one week after surgery.


What is adrenalectomy?

Adrenalectomy is a surgical procedure involving the removal of one or two adrenal glands. Adrenal glands are two small organs, one situated above each kidney. They harbor hormones that help regulate many bodily functions, including the immune system, metabolism, blood glucose, and blood pressure control.

Why do I need adrenalectomy?

Benign or cancerous adrenal glands are the most common reason for adrenalectomy. Surgeons can remove one or both adrenal glands if they contain a tumor. If you only need to remove the adrenal gland, the remaining adrenal gland can take over and provide complete functioning.

If any of your adrenal glands or both produce too many hormones, you may need an adrenalectomy. Excessive hormone production is a symptom of tumors in the adrenal glands.

After adrenalectomy, you will rest in a recovery room where nurses can monitor your vital signs. When you wake up from anesthesia, you will be allowed to rest in a regular hospital room.

In the event that you have open adrenalectomy, you will probably stay in the hospital for four or five days. You can usually go home two to three days after laparoscopic adrenalectomy. You will probably feel pain on the sides of the cuts. If you undergo laparoscopic adrenalectomy, you can also feel cramps or flatulence caused by gas in the abdomen.

Your surgeon will schedule a meeting two weeks after surgery. Talk about the rest of the pain or other issues you may observe at this meeting. You may need help after treatment if you have had complications after surgery. However, most patients recover well and have no complications. In general, patients with adrenalectomy may return to work or school as soon as they feel ready. However, you will be warned by your doctor to stay away from carrying heavy objects six to eight weeks after surgery.

If adrenalectomy removes the two adrenal glands, you will also receive additional medication to replace the hormones that the adrenal glands usually produce.

3.Anal Fistula Surgery

What is an anal fistula?

An anal fistula is an abnormal connection between the inner mucous membrane of your anal canal (back passage) and the skin near your anus.

Most anal fistulas occur as a result of abscesses (a collection of pus) that developed in your anal canal. The pus can dry off by itself on the skin or through a surgery. The fistula occurs when the track, produced by the pus on the way to the surface of the skin remains open.

What are the benefits of the operation?

If the surgery is successful, you should not have more infections or pain.

Are there alternatives to the operation?

Most anal fistulas do not cure themselves. Surgery is usually needed to treat the problem.

What does this operation involve?

Surgery for an anal fistula is usually performed under general anesthesia. The operation usually lasts between a quarter and an hour.

To reduce the risk of incontinence of the intestine (when you pass a bowel movement without the desire), your treatment may involve several operations over several months. The type of operation you need depends on the location of the fistula.


4. Appendectomy

This is the surgical removal of the appendix. It is a common emergency surgery to treat inflammation of the appendix known as appendicitis.

The appendix is a small tube-shaped pouch that is connected to the colon. It is located in the lower right part of the abdomen. The exact function of the appendix is unknown. However, it is thought that this could help us recover from diarrhea, inflammation, and infections of small and large intestines. It may look like important functions, but the body can still function properly without an appendix.

When the appendix is inflamed and swollen, bacteria can rapidly multiply inside the organ and leads to the formation of pus. This accumulation of bacteria and pus can cause pain around the belly button, which radiate to the lower right of the abdomen. Walking or coughing can aggravate pain. You may also have nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.

It is important to seek treatment immediately if you have symptoms of appendicitis. In the absence of treatment, the appendix can burst (perforated appendix) and release bacteria and other harmful substances into the abdominal cavity. It can be dangerous to life and cause a longer period of stay at the hospital.

The generally accepted treatment for appendix is an appendectomy. It is very important to immediately remove the appendix before the appendix can rupture. Once appendectomy is done, most people recover quickly and without complications.


This is a simple medical procedure performed by a doctor to recognize abnormalities in your gastrointestinal tract, including your anus and rectum.

In order to perform anoscopy, a device known as anoscope will be inserted into your anus. This scope is usually made of plastic (disposable) or stainless steel (sterilizable). An anoscope allows your doctor a detailed overview of the tissues located in your anal rectal areas.

The anoscopy can identify several conditions and diseases that can affect the lower part of the intestines. This includes cancer, tears in the tissue called anal fissures, hemorrhoids (swollen veins around the anus and/or rectum) and rectal polyps.

•    An anoscopy can spot a number of problems, including:

•    Abscess

•    Anal fissures

•    Hemorrhoids

•    Polyps

•    Cancer

The outcome of your anoscopy will determine the next steps. The test can help your doctor determine the appropriate treatment for your condition or the need for further tests.

6. Myringoplasty

Myringoplasty is an operation that is done to repairs the hole (perforation) in the eardrum. Perforation occurs as a result of infection in the middle ear that passes through the eardrum.

What are the benefits of the operation?

Surgery can prevent repeated ear infections and sometimes improve hearing.

Are there alternatives to the operation?

Keeping your ear dry by placing cotton and petroleum jelly in your ear while bathing or washing your hair can help prevent infection. The infection can be treated with antibiotics, and a qualified health care professional can clean the ear. Making use of a hearing aid can improve poor listening.

What does this operation involve?

This surgery is usually performed under general anesthesia, but a local anesthetic can be used as well. The operation usually lasts from an hour to an hour and a half. Your surgeon will have to use the graft (piece of tissue) to cover the hole.

Your surgeon will insert a graft through a cut engraved in front of or behind your ear or inside your ear canal. The eardrum will be raised; the graft will be placed beneath it and supported by a sponge that dissolves. Then they will return the eardrum.


In summary, general Surgery is a surgical specialty that encompasses different content of the abdomen including esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, appendix and bile ducts, and often thyroid gland. There are some skin disease such as those that affects the skin, breast, soft tissue trauma can be treated by general Surgery and in addition, peripheral vascular surgery and hernias and endoscopic procedures, such as gastroscopy and colonoscopy. Common General Surgical Procedures include, Adenoidectomy, Adrenalectomy, Anal Fistula Surgery, Appendectomy, Anoscopy And Myringoplasty among others.